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A biological or computational system used to simulate a disease or biological process, on which tests are done to describe and explain phenomena that cannot be experienced directly


A group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds


Monotherapy is therapy that uses one type of treatment, such as radiation therapy or surgery alone, to treat a certain disease or condition. In drug therapy, monotherapy refers to the use of a single drug to treat a disease or condition.


An analysis approach in which the data sets are multiple 'omes', such as the genome (all of an individual's genes) or proteome (all of an individual's proteins)


A change in a gene.


National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Public organisation that develops medical guidelines for health and care in England

Natural history

A natural history study is a medical study of people who have, or are at risk of developing, a specific condition over an extended period of time. 


Typically of an action or activity- wicked or criminal 


Pharmaceutical alternative which claims physiological benefits 



Off-label use is when a drug is used for something other than for what it was approved.

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