Main glossary

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Rare disease

The EU defines a condition as 'rare' if it affects less than 1 in 2000 people.


A collection of information about individuals. 


Following regulatory approval, a reimbursement body will decide whether the manufacturer will be paid the cost of the drug, based on a cost-effectiveness calculation. In the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) decide whether a drug will be reimbursed, i.e. whether the NHS will fund patients' treatments


The reduction or disappearance of the signs and symptoms of a disease

Research Ethics Committee

Groups of professionals and service users who review the ethical considerations of research studies. 

Restricted funding

Funding provided to a charitable organisation with restrictions around its use to a specific project.



Alternative situations that a model can generate results for, as opposed to the default settings of the model.

Sensitive data

Under General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), health data are considered sensitive data and are therefore subject to specific processing conditions

Sensitivity analyses

A group of methods which try and test how reliable the results of a model are. This is done by making small changes to the model and measuring the effect on the results.


A drug for which development has been halted, sometimes because tests are not successful, but often because pursuing them simply does not present a tangible  business opportunity

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