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In the conduct of a clinical trial, the sponsor is an individual or organisation that takes responsibility to initiate, manage or finance the clinical trial, but does not actually conduct the investigation


A person's natural height


The preparation of a drug/compound from its chemical components

Systematic review

Systematic reviews aim to bring together the results of all studies addressing a particular research question that have been carried out around the world. They provide a comprehensive and unbiased summary of the research. For example, one clinical trial may not give a clear answer about the effectiveness of a treatment. This might be because the difference between the treatments being tested was very small, or because only a small number of people took part in the trial. So systematic reviews are used to bring the results of a number of similar trials together, to piece together and assess the quality of all the evidence. Combining the results from a number of trials may give a clearer picture. 


Time horizon

The length of time that is examined in a model, typically in terms of years.

Translational research

The process of turning research findings and discoveries into practical applications that are of benefit to patients.

Treatment pathway

The procedures for treatment of an illness. This will often take the form of a decision tree, which includes all the possible outcomes for a medical condition and all the appropriate elements of care a patient would receive at each stage.



Conditions that only affect an even smaller group of patients than orphan diseases, typically affecting fewer than 1 in 50,000 individuals (All Wales Medicines Strategy Group, 2015).

Umbrella Registry

Registries that are set up for multiple conditions that a particular rare disease could fit into

Unrestricted funding

Funding provided to a charitable organisation without any restricted around its use.

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