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Not everyone is applicable to take part in a clinical trial. Volunteers can be included for a number of reasons such as age, gender, type of condition, and other symptoms. 

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

A measure of the economic value of an intervention, in terms of costs and health benefits, compared with an alternative (comparator). It is usually the main output or result of an economic evaluation.

Informed consent

Informed consent requires trial participants to be provided with a clear explanation of the trial and associated risks and benefits to make a fully informed decision about participating.


A treatment option such as a drug, type of surgery, or medical device.


A treatment option such as a drug, type of surgery, or medical device

Inverted pyramid structure

The inverted pyramid is a writing style used by journalists which follows a standard format. In this pattern, the most important facts are presented at the beginning followed by additional information in the subsequent paragraphs. The opening paragraph answers the 5 W’s and 1 H: who, what, when, where, why, and how. 


Lay (person)

The term 'lay' means non-professional. In research, it refers to the people who are neither academic researchers nor health or social care professionals. 


Markov models

A type of model that assumes that patients move between different health states through the course of their disease. These health states are associated with particular costs and quality of life levels, and the time spent in these health states determines the overall costs and benefits experienced by the patients.


A change in a gene.


Natural history

A natural history study is a medical study of people who have, or are at risk of developing, a specific condition over an extended period of time. 

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