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P

Pathways

Genes do not act in isolation, and do their job by interacting in a network of genes and proteins. These networks are known as signalling pathways. 


Patient group

A patient group is an organisation set up to represent the views of patients and families around all issues relating to a condition, from diagnosis, care and management, and treatment. They are set up by patients, for patients. 


Patient information sheet

Researchers must provide a patient information sheet to everyone they invite to take part in a research study, to ensure people can make an informed decision about this. The sheet explains what taking part will involve and should include details about:

  • why the research is being done, how long it will last, and what methods will be used
  • the possible risks and benefits
  • what taking part will practically involve, e.g. extra visits to a hospital or a researcher coming to interview someone at home
  • what interventions are being tested, or what topics an interview will cover
  • how the researchers will keep participants' information confidential
  • what compensation is available to people if they are harmed as a result of taking part in the research
  • who to contact for further information
  • how the results will be shared with others. 

Peer review

Peer reviewing is where a research proposal or a report of research is read and commented on by people with similar interests and expertise to those who wrote the proposal or report. Peer reviewers might be members of the public, researchers, or other professionals. Peer review helps to check the quality of a report or research proposal. Members of the public who act as peer reviewers may choose to comment on:

  • whether the research addresses an important and relevant question
  • the methods used by researchers
  • the quality of public involvement in the research.

Perspective

The point of view that an analysis is conducted from.


Pharmaceutical company

A pharmaceutical company is a company that develops, produces, and markets drugs for use as medications.


Phenotyping

The full set of an individual's observable characteristics reflecting genetic inheritance, genetic mutations, and environmental influences. Phenotypic data can include the results of clinical tests, scans, and descriptions.


Placebo

A placebo is an inactive medicine which has no treatment value. 


Pre-clinical research

Pre-clinical research is essentially all medical research that does not require human participation. To name but a few methods, researchers can use bacteria, yeast, animal models, and computational models to investigate human health.


Press release

A press release is an essential communication tool that is used to get your message across to the media in one fell swoop. It follows the structure of a typical news story including relevant quotes and 5 Ws and 1 H (who? what? Where? When? Why? and how?). Whether you want to announce a fundraising event, launching an awareness campaign, promoting an accomplishment or engaging in any clinical trial/research programme, a press release can be used to get the right publicity. 



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