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in vitro

When a study is performed with microorganisms, cells or molecules outside of their normal biological context

in vivo

When a study tests the effect of drugs on whole, living organisms


Not everyone is applicable to take part in a clinical trial. Volunteers can be included for a number of reasons such as age, gender, type of condition, and other symptoms. 

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

A measure of the economic value of an intervention, in terms of costs and health benefits, compared with an alternative (comparator). It is usually the main output or result of an economic evaluation.


Refers to the use of a drug for treating a particular disease

Informed consent

Informed consent requires trial participants to be provided with a clear explanation of the trial and associated risks and benefits to make a fully informed decision about participating.

Intellectual property

Denotes ownership of an idea and can include copyrights, patents and trademarks


A treatment option such as a drug, type of surgery, or medical device.


A treatment option such as a drug, type of surgery, or medical device

Inverted pyramid structure

The inverted pyramid is a writing style used by journalists which follows a standard format. In this pattern, the most important facts are presented at the beginning followed by additional information in the subsequent paragraphs. The opening paragraph answers the 5 W’s and 1 H: who, what, when, where, why, and how. 

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