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Molecules with identical formulas but distinct structures


Lay (person)

The term 'lay' means non-professional. In research, it refers to the people who are neither academic researchers nor health or social care professionals. 


A drug must be granted a licence by a regulatory body, before it can be made available for wider use. Licences confirm the health condition the medicine should be used for and the recommended dosage


When a product has been given a marketing authorisation (product licence) by a medicines regulator, meaning it can be placed on the market

Literature review

A comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. 


Market Exclusivity

A fixed period of time during which similar medicines for the same indication as the drug granted market exclusivity, cannot be placed on the market. The EMA grant market exclusivity for a 10-year period after the marketing authorisation of an orphan drug

Marketing authorisation

The approval to market a medicine in one, several or all of the European Union Member States

Markov models

A type of model that assumes that patients move between different health states through the course of their disease. These health states are associated with particular costs and quality of life levels, and the time spent in these health states determines the overall costs and benefits experienced by the patients.


An intermediate or end product of metabolism


Literature mining is the process of extracting facts/data from text in the scientific literature. Literature mining can generate new hypotheses by scrutinising large numbers of publications

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