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C

Candidate

A drug that has been identified as having strong therapeutic potential and will be taken into clinical trials


Carrier

A person who is generally not affected with the condition (at that moment), but carries one faulty copy of a gene


Clinical research

Clinical research is any research that requires human participation. This could include giving biological samples (e.g. blood or tissue), answering health questionnaires, giving researchers access to medical records, or taking part in a clinical trial


Clinical trial

A clinical trial is any research study that assigns human participants to health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.



Clinician

A medical professional that has direct contact with patients


Co-morbidity

The presence of more than one disorder in the same patient


Coding region

The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS, is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein. 


Cohort

A group of people with a shared characteristic


Comparator

The alternative to the proposed treatment or strategy


Comparators

The alternatives to the proposed treatment or strategy.


Compound rescue

Compound rescue is taking a potential drug compound at advanced stage of pharma development but abandoned before drug approval, and testing it a disease that is different than the one it was originally developed for and then abandoned.


Consent

Providing permission for something to happen or agreement to do something


Contract research organisation

Any organisation that provides services relating to clinical research, such as the development of medicines, clinical trials and commercialisation


Control group

A control group in a clinical trial is given either an existing standard treatment or a placebo, to serve as a base line for the new medicine's effects to be tested against.


Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social, and environmentally sustainable manner.


Cost of illness

A measure of the economic burden of a disease on society, incorporating all costs of the disease.



Cost-consequence model

A model that details the costs and outcomes of an intervention separately, without combining the two elements


Cost-effectiveness

A measure of the value a new treatment provides by looking at the costs per unit of benefit.


Cost-effectiveness

A measure of the value a new treatment provides by looking at the costs per unit of benefit.



Cost-effectiveness model

A model that compares the costs and benefits of two or more interventions



Cost-utility model

A model type that measures health benefits in a preference-based measure, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)


Crowdfunding

A way of raising funds by asking a large number of people each for money


Crowdsourcing

Obtaining information or input into a task/project by enlisting the help of a large number of people



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