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A person who is generally not affected with the condition (at that moment), but carries one faulty copy of a gene

Clinical research

Clinical research is any research that requires human participation. This could include giving biological samples (e.g. blood or tissue), answering health questionnaires, giving researchers access to medical records, or taking part in a clinical trial

Clinical trial

A clinical trial is a health-related research study involving volunteers who are usually patients with a specific disease. The aims of these trials are to test whether potential new treatments are effective and safe.

Clinical trials

A clinical trial is any research study that assigns human participants to health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.


The alternatives to the proposed treatment or strategy.

Compound rescue

Compound rescue is taking a potential drug compound at advanced stage of pharma development but abandoned before drug approval, and testing it a disease that is different than the one it was originally developed for and then abandoned.

Control group

A control group in a clinical trial is given either an existing standard treatment or a placebo, to serve as a base line for the new medicine's effects to be tested against.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in an economic, social, and environmentally sustainable manner.

Cost of illness

A measure of the economic burden of a disease on society, incorporating all costs of the disease.

Cost-consequence model

A model that details the costs and outcomes of an intervention separately, without combining the two elements

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