Main glossary

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL



Efficacy refers to the ability of a medicine to provide a beneficial effect (a positive benefit/risk ratio) when studied in a clinical trial

When talking in terms of efficacy vs. effectiveness, effectiveness relates to how well a treatment works in the real world practice of medicine, as opposed to efficacy, which measures how well a treatment works in clinical trials or laboratory studies.

End of life

Types of terminal medical conditions that have become advanced, progressive and incurable. The criteria required to meet this description differ between decision makers across the different regions.

Endoplasmic reticulum

A network of membranes within animal cells used to facilitate reactions 


An outcome relating to a change in biological processes, sometimes measured to determine the effectiveness of an intervention


Ethics is the name given to the code of practice based on a set of decent, fair, and moral principles and guidelines that researchers should abide by when conducting research. Any research that will seek to gain personal confidential information or to test a new intervention or treatment on people must get ethical approval from a Research Ethics Committee.

European Medicines Agency

The body in the European Union that regulates the use of medicines across all EU states. 

European Reference Networks

Virtual networks of healthcare providers across Europe that aim to facilitate discussions on complex or rare conditions


Not everyone is applicable to take part in a clinical trial. Volunteers can be excluded for a number of reasons such as age, gender, type of condition, and other symptoms. 

Expert testimony

Testimony about a scientific, technical, or professional issue given by a person qualified to  testify because of familiarity with the subject or special training in the field.


To make a prediction about the future, using existing trends.