Main glossary

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Efficacy refers to the ability of a medicine to provide a beneficial effect (a positive benefit/risk ratio) when studied in a clinical trial

When talking in terms of efficacy vs. effectiveness, effectiveness relates to how well a treatment works in the real world practice of medicine, as opposed to efficacy, which measures how well a treatment works in clinical trials or laboratory studies.

End of life

Types of terminal medical conditions that have become advanced, progressive and incurable. The criteria required to meet this description differ between decision makers across the different regions.


Ethics is the name given to the code of practice based on a set of decent, fair, and moral principles and guidelines that researchers should abide by when conducting research. Any research that will seek to gain personal confidential information or to test a new intervention or treatment on people must get ethical approval from a Research Ethics Committee.


Not everyone is applicable to take part in a clinical trial. Volunteers can be excluded for a number of reasons such as age, gender, type of condition, and other symptoms. 


To make a prediction about the future, using existing trends.