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The point of view that an analysis is conducted from.

Pharmaceutical company

A pharmaceutical company is a company that develops, produces, and markets drugs for use as medications.


The study of the use and effect of drugs in a well-defined, large population


The study of how a drug enters, moves through and leaves the body. This can include its absorption, distribution, breakdown and excretion


The practice of monitoring the effects of medical drugs after they have been licensed to identify previously unreported adverse reactions


Clinical trial programmes are divided into different stages, called phases. There are three main phases where Phase I trials typically involve testing a drug on a small number of healthy volunteers to assess safety, Phase II trials are testing on a small number of patients to assess the efficacy and Phase III allow this to be scaled up to much larger numbers


The set of observable characteristics in a living organism


The full set of an individual's observable characteristics reflecting genetic inheritance, genetic mutations, and environmental influences. Phenotypic data can include the results of clinical tests, scans, and descriptions.

Pilot study

A small scale preliminary study to evaluate the feasibility, duration, cost and side effects prior to embarking on a full-scale research project


A placebo is an inactive medicine which has no treatment value. 

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