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A participant is someone who takes part in a research project. Sometimes participants are referred to as research "subjects".
Genes do not act in isolation, and do their job by interacting in a network of genes and proteins. These networks are known as signalling pathways.
A patient group is an organisation set up to represent the views of patients and families around all issues relating to a condition, from diagnosis, care and management, and treatment. They are set up by patients, for patients.
Patient information sheet
Researchers must provide a patient information sheet to everyone they invite to take part in a research study, to ensure people can make an informed decision about this. The sheet explains what taking part will involve and should include details about:
Peer reviewing is where a research proposal or a report of research is read and commented on by people with similar interests and expertise to those who wrote the proposal or report. Peer reviewers might be members of the public, researchers, or other professionals. Peer review helps to check the quality of a report or research proposal. Members of the public who act as peer reviewers may choose to comment on:
The point of view that an analysis is conducted
A pharmaceutical company is a company that develops, produces, and markets drugs for use as medications.
The full set of an individual's observable characteristics reflecting genetic inheritance, genetic mutations, and environmental influences. Phenotypic data can include the results of clinical tests, scans, and descriptions.
A placebo is an inactive medicine which has no treatment value.